Monday, May 25, 2020
Case 2.3 from Ã¢â¬Å"Applying Normative Theories to a Moral SituationÃ¢â¬ will be used for a brief analysis of two of the six moral theories recently studied. As a professional I am encountered with a few ethical dilemmas in case 2.3. For example, is the 4 years old child my only patient? If not, how does patient client confidentiality factor into this case? As a professional physician should I lie to my patient first and foremost? Should I lie to the other members of the family, to my profession, and last but not least to myself? Must I start the quest for a kidney from a cadaver? Should I inform the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother that the father is a perfect match, with the motive of shaming the father into donating his kidney to save his childÃ¢â¬â¢s life? Answering these questions from a non professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective may be an easy no or even yes. However from a professional perspective some moral theorists may have much to debate before deriving at a conclusion, if any. All six theories learnt can be explored in this case study along with all the ethical dilemmas mentioned; notwithstanding, I will try to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"should I lie to my patientÃ¢â¬ ? Using the reasoningÃ¢â¬â¢s of the utilitarian theory, which includes act- utilitarianism and rule- utilitarianism. In addition, the deontology theory will be explored. One other theory will be mentioned briefly as it may relate to case 2.3. According to( Rowan and Zinaich Jr. 2013 pg 11 pp1) the utilitarian theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s focal point is on the consequences ofShow MoreRelatedApplying Normative Theories Of A Moral Situation993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdilemma Case 2.3 from Ã¢â¬Å"Applying Normative Theories to a Moral SituationÃ¢â¬ will be used for a brief analysis of two of the six moral theories recently studied. As a professional I am encountered with a few ethical dilemmas in case 2.3. For example, is the 4 year old child my only patient? If not, how does patient, client confidentiality factor in this case? As a professional physician should I lie to my patient first and foremost? Should I lie to the other members of the family, to my profession, andRead MoreThe Self Standards Model Of Dissonance927 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdissonance is recognised as a feeling of discomfort, initially aroused by two inconsistent cognitions created by performing an action that contradict ones typically self-concept (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, 2010). The drive to view ourselves as reasonable, moral and smart motivates individuals to decrease the negative state refereed to as dissonance (Gosling, Denizeau, OberlÃ © , 2006). Dissonance is amplified when a behaviour threatens individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, 2010), forcing individualsRead MoreIs Feminism a Harmful Ideology Essay1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescentral moral issues to this debate are as follows : (1) Is it immoral to infringe upon individual liberty (even if some other good can come of it)? (2) Is it immoral to discriminate based on sex (even if there are innate differences, which are relevant to the situation)? What makes these distinctly moral issues, as opposed to legal, religious, or socio-political issues? These are distinctly moral issues for a few reasons. First, answers to these questions require normative statementsRead MoreHarts Theory Essay1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHarts Theory When Hart began forming his legal theory a dominant view in legal theory literature was that law is best understood as the command of a sovereign to its subjects. The command theory most actively propounded by, and identified with Austin, explained law as a matter of commands by a sovereign who is habitually obeyed by others, but who does not habitually obey others. There are regular patterns of obedience to these commands, and legal obligations existRead MoreEuthanasi An Utilitarian Perspective1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof living. I argue that the practice of euthanasia need not involve the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s moral feelings for they are irrelevant and therefore should be practiced to ensure that the terminally-ill patients and the public do not undergo unnecessary suffering. Williams argues that the utilitarian view fails to take the consideration of the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s moral feelings performing the act. I contend that this fails because MillÃ¢â¬â¢s theory strongly implies that ends are desirable in so far as people desire them. I willRead MoreThe Ethical Dilemma Of Jean Mcguire Essay1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2010). This is the case in JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as her two options have their own disadvantages. Jean can choose to use the techniques she feels so uneasy about, increase her sales and keep her job or else refuse to use the techniques and risk her job at Sunrise. The Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ choice for Jean is difficult to immediately discern. Normative ethical theories aid in distinguishing right from wrong in an ethical dilemma by providing principles that can be applied to the situation. JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical dilemma can beRead MoreEssay Organizational Behavior1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfield of study that draws from many of the behavioral sciences. The goal of organizational behavior is to apply the concepts from the other behavioral sciences to pressing problems that management may be facing, as well as applying organizational behavior to the administrative theory and practices. With the problems of organizational behavior, there are a number of available strategies that can be utilized. In the past, the study of the organizations and the management used a closed-systems view. TheRead MoreEthical Issues Facing The Healthcare Industry905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesenvironment. There are many types of categories of ethics and within those categories are specific principles and theories. Here is an outline and brief overview of Ethics as a whole before I detail the ones I will specifically use for this ethics program: 1.) Normative Ethics Ã¢â¬â a discipline of philosophy that focuses on the study of ethical action a. Virtue Ethics - direct us to consider the moral character of individuals and how various character traits can contribute to, or obstruct a happy and meaningfulRead MoreEthical Issue in Pharmacy1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis to promote a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. However, certain obvious ethical issues will arise. Within any business involved in bulk purchasing the issue of unconscious theft will also occur. The following paper focuses on the application of ethical theories that supports as well as argues the behavior within Chaguanas Drug Mart. Chaguanas Drug Mart was established in 2008 and is no ordinary pharmacy since it provides more than your medical needs such as beautiful unusual gifts. The store stocks a rangeRead MoreThe Ethics And Ethical Ethics1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages4th Century BC, the study of ethics and ethical behaviour has occupied human thought, with various philosophers exploring the fundamental issues of practical decision making, determining the nature of normative theories (Aristotelian virtue ethics), and applying these principles to pragmatic moral issues. Approximately 2040 years ago, Aristotle published, what is considered to be the foundations of modern day ethics and ethical frameworks, the Ã¢â¬Å"Nicomachean EthicsÃ¢â¬ . Through this publication, Aristotle
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Bachelor in Information Technology Program U10a2 Enterprise Architecture Proposal for RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s Ribs For IT3200, Section 05 Rolando Rueda-de-Leon Submitted 9/17/2010 Table of Contents Executive Summary 4 Analysis of the existing foundation for execution 4 Organization Chart 5 Definition of the Operating Model for RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s Ribs 5 Business Process Standardization 6 Recommended Process Standardization 6 Comparison of Operating Model 6 Core Business Applications 7 Proposal for an Enterprise Architecture 11 IT Capability 12 Business Strategic Objectives 12 Funding Priorities 13 Key Management Capability 13 Business Core Applications 13 Key IT Governance Issues 14Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While this is a good opportunity to build a business and has a lot of potential Ralph has hired an Enterprise Architecture Consultant to provide a solid Business Model which will allow for more consistency and will provide a foundation for more growth in the market. The Consultant will research the company, how it currently operates and will identify areas where business process standardization would provide benefits to the organization. Organization Chart for RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s Ribs Ralph is the owner operator of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s RockinÃ¢â¬â¢ Ribs. He runs it solely with his two sons; Ralph Jr. and John. Ralph Jr. and John spend a lot of time traveling to ensure that the individual franchise owners are keeping the agreements set forth in the franchise documentation. It is important to Ralph that each site maintains the high quality food, cleanliness and quality customer service that has become his brand. The chart below depicts their current organizational chart. Definition of the Operating Model for RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s Ribs Key Factors | Specific to Ralphs Ribs Franchise | Few Shared Customers | Customers are the same type of people and will in some cases be the same as people vacation across the country. | Independent Transactions Reported at High Level | Each franchise will monitor its own transactions but willShow MoreRelatedEnterprise Architecture Proposal3307 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesof catastrophic failure. Maintain a backup system with the ability to fail over within minutes and without end- user intervention. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Describe the current level of architecture maturity for the selected organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Slide 18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ By the information given and overall observations, CMH is operating under the business silo architecture. We have given little though to how business is conducted by our affiliates. They operate under their own management and we are conducting business as separate entitiesRead MoreSoftware Methodologies And Frameworks Report1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescapabilities and processes in the enterprise that were driven by IT. Gradually, IT changed the business but not necessarily in alignment with the business strategy. This lack of alignment resulted in significant waste of resources and missed opportunities, and placed the organization in a competitive disadvantage in the market. To align the strategies of business with IT, a new approach for managing IT has been developed called Enterprise Architecture. Just as architecture provides a blueprint for constructingRead MorePaper Case Study NantoniaÃ 3635 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesand gives practical guidance on the evaluation of the current maturity levels of service management within the current organization. * The Business Perspective: The Business Perspective is designed to familiarize business management with the architecture and components of information and communications technology (ICT) Ã¢â¬âinfrastructure required to support the business processes. The book helps business leaders better understand the benefits of best practices in IT service management. * SoftwareRead MoreHarley-Davidson Motor Company: Enterprise Software Selection784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesincluded in Solution Proposal 13. Architecture Compatibility 14. Platform Portability 15. Web functionality ?to go? 16. Manufacturing Experience This list too covers the most important factors. Dividing this list into groups: Group 1: Relationship and Understanding Long term relationship potential, Understanding Harley?s requirement Group 2: Experience and Fitness Enabling the SMS, Financial Viability, Cost, Technical Support Offerings, Overall functionality, Architecture Compatibility, PlatformRead MoreAlcan IT Strategy Analysis1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessigns of massive overduplication of expense, with a $500M level of spending on enterprise applications with SAP being the majority. There are further signs of massive waste in their highly diversified organizational structure. There are 400 systems in the company all dedicated to pricing, a massive duplication of costs, time and effort on the part of IT across the five divisions. There are also over 1,000 concurrent enterprise-class IT systems being used throughout the company at any point in time. ConservativelyRead MoreSecurity Issue On Hybrid Cloud Computing1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmy research proposal, I will examine some of the security challenges while using hybrid cloud in Information Technology and how to overcome these security issues by using different key management techniques. I n this research proposal I will explain implication of key management mechanisms and how to overcome security problems in Hybrid cloud computing by using key management mechanisms. In this proposal mainly I will illustrate how to establish a security connection between enterprise and cloud inRead MoreThe Controller Of Sdn Architecture : Stronger New Heart For Broadband Network1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesController in SDN architecture: Stronger new heart for Broadband Network Tian Mei Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science college Stuart Building 10 W 31 ST Chicago, United States email@example.com AbstractÃ¢â¬âSoftware-Defined Networking (SDN) is a new intelligent architecture which is composited by several kinds of network technology aimed at making the network as agile and flexible as possible. The SDN Controller is one of the most important components in the SDN architecture. The SDN ControllerRead MoreProposal for Event Management System1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEVENESIS PROPOSAL TO MAJLIS SUKAN NEGARA (MSN) Submitted by: 09/03/2012 Table of Contents 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 2.0 FUNCTIONAL amp; TECHNICAL PROPOSAL 5 2.1 Evenesis Enterprise Features 5 2.2 Evenesis Server and Hosting Requirements 7 2.3 Assumptions 7 3.0 COMMERCIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS 8 3.1 Evenesis Enterprise Package 8 3.2 Deployment Timeframe 8 3.3 Evenesis Subscription Fee 8 3.4 Payment 9 3.5 Customizations and Enhancements 9 3.6 Data Migration/Data EntryRead MoreEnterprise Analysis and Making a Business Case9067 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesEnterprise Analysis and Making a Business Case Overview/Description Enterprise analysis is a key knowledge area in the practice of business analysis. During enterprise analysis, the business analyst identifies business opportunities, builds a business architecture framework, and determines the best project investment path for the enterprise. From this, the business analyst puts forward a business case, which provides an overall justification for the project. In this course, learners will examineRead MorePreventing Attacks on New Network-Based Systems862 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesbring in a virus or malware from the outside and quickly delivery it to the other users in the network. Spyware is especially dangerous because it can often go unnoticed for long periods of time, putting the companys sensitive data in jeopardy (Enterprise Networking Planet Staff 2011). Unlike malware, which typically work to noticeably attack the operating system in order to purposely damage it, spyware stays hidden and mines for lucrative data to steal. If a network-based system does not have the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Technocrats and Canada: Starting Point for Border Security Architecture Derek Brown (G00040841) Grantham University Abstract This paper will discuss the role of technocrats in Homeland Security and this paper will discuss whether or not Canada should of been the starting point for border security architecture. What is a technocrat? Is it some new genre of music for bureaucrats? Or is it what you get when you cross the techno genre and a Politian? Actually, itÃ¢â¬â¢s none of these; a technocrat is someone who feels many important issues in society can be solved using technology focused solutions. Should technology be used as a means of minimizing terrorism? Or should we continue to use current methods already in place? Tom Ridge andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The technocrat point of view was one in which they believed the use of information, intelligence and technology could essentially elude the trade-off between security and the free flow of goods and people; and this was what Ridge believed. During the Bush administration, technocrats governed, one of which was Homeland Security and another wa s the Customs Service; the real power base of the techocrats. At first glance, it was odd to start Canada as the building block for the new Homeland Security architecture; there were 19 hijackers who flew on planes from outside of Canada and not through Canada and it was believed one or more had entered the United States on boats from Nova Scotia. There was a French citizen named Zacarias Moussaoui, who was arrested in Minnesota for wanting learn how to fly a Boeing 747; this act underscored the susceptibility of the visa waiver program; which allowed Europeans, including radicalized Muslims to travel to the United States with no previous checks. However, here are some reasons why Canada should be the starting point for their new approach on border security architecture; for instance from 1973 to 2003 there were over 400Show MoreRelatedPayment Gateway : Introduction And Overview3292 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesits presence were felt late by the industry at large, but the real galvaniz ation happen after the dot.com burst which wiped the slate clean, and amazon.com and ebay.com were the survivors still standing. Ã¢â¬â¢Amazon is e-commerceÃ¢â¬â" a term coined by a technocrat whose name is yet to reveal. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact that Amazon was the one who made selling via internet a reality. Challenges were big which Amazon had to solve, and a prominent one was the mode of payment. Electronic payment was at its nascent stageRead MoreAn Impact Assessment of Science and Technology Policy on National Development of Nigeria61708 Words Ã |Ã 247 PagesJamila, Aisha, Isa, Fatima and Abdullahi for their patience and understanding, especially when the demands of office kept me away from home. They have been quite wonderful and a source of inspiration to me in realizing my vision of acquiring a Ph. D. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Let me start by thanking the Almighty God for blessing me with good health, wisdom and foresight to undertake this study and for providing me with good leaders, colleagues, friends and associates who offered me valuabl9e suggestionsRead MoreWhose Interests Should Be the Paramount Concern of Government Trade Policy - the Interests of Producers (Businesses and Their Employees) or Those of Consumers?8858 Words Ã |Ã 36 Pageswhich includes research and development (RD), regional development, and environmental protection. It reflects the externality or equity aspect. Meanwhile, it has no longer been non-actionable since 2000. As subsidies relating to the RD area and environmental protection are provided due to externality, if left to the market mechanism, a sub-optimal amount of RD and environmental protection would be produced. Therefore, the governmental subsidization of RD and environmental protection activities canRead MoreEssay about Compare and Contrast Leadership Theories9999 Words Ã |Ã 40 PagesGoethals D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Leadership at the crossroads (Vol 1) (pp. 13-29). Westport, CT: Praeger. 17. ^ Foti, R. J., Hauenstein, N. M. A. (2007). Pattern and variable approaches in leadership emergence and effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 347-355. 18. ^ Gershenoff, A. G., Foti, R. J. (2003). Leader emergence and gender roles in all-female groups: A contextual examination. Small Group Research, 34, 170-196. 19. ^ a b Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., JacobsRead MoreChemical Hazards43022 Words Ã |Ã 173 Pagesinputs related to On-Site and Off-Site emergency plans. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to the representatives of the other central ministries and departments concerned, regulatory agencies, RD organisations, professionals from scientific and technical institutes/academics, technocrats from leading national institutions and apex industrial associations/consortiums of the corporate sectors for the valuable inputs that helped us in improving the content and presentation of the document.Read MoreMarketing Management130471 Words Ã |Ã 522 Pagespolitical party trying to market its candidate to the public (b) the director of an art museum providing new exhibits to generate greater attendance and financial support (c) a labor union marketing its idea to members and to company management; and (d) professors trying to make their courses interesting for stu dents. In addition to the range of items normally considered as products and services, what is being marketed might include (a) ideas such as reducing air pollution or contributing to the redRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesUnited States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of Environmental Transitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richard P. Tucker 315 About the Contributors Ã¢â¬ ¢ 343 _ IN TR OD UC TIO N Michael Adas B y any of the customary measures we deploy to demarcate historical epochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginningsRead MoreCase Studies67624 Words Ã |Ã 271 PagesPrioritise predicaments/problems regarding timing, importance, etc. a. Specify and prioritise the criteria used to choose action alternatives. b. Discover or invent feasible action alternatives. Examine the probable consequences of action alternatives. d. Select a course of action. e. Design an implementation plan/schedule. f. Create a plan for assessing the action to be implemented. Source: C. C. Lundberg and C. Enz, 1993, Ã¢â¬ËA framework for student case preparationÃ¢â¬â¢, Case Research Journal, 13 (Summer)
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Heathcliff And Catherine Earnshaw In Emily Bronte? S # 8220 ; Wuthering Heights # 8221 ; Essay, Research Paper Love is an astonishing emotion. People spend much of their lives seeking for true love. When true love is found, people will make everything possible to keep on to and care for it for infinity. It is said that true love can merely be found one time in a life-time that is filled with intense everlasting emotions. A authoritative illustration of this powerful emotion is displayed by the characters Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw in Emily Bronte? s Wuthering Highs. Wuthering Heights examines a passionate and overpowering love between its cardinal characters, Cathy and Heathcliff. Their love is profound and filled with passion unlike any other. Its strength physiques from their childhood until the ill-timed decease of Catherine. The extent of this love is exemplified during Heathcliff and Catherine? s interactions with each other, during Catherine? s statements to Nelly, and during Catherine? s decease where Heathcliff and Catherine embracing for the last clip. When Catherine and Heathcliff were immature, they would? run off to the Moors in the forenoon and stay at that place all twenty-four hours? ( 44 ) . They spent a batch of clip together playing like kids. It is in this clip that they create their ageless bond. Catherine and Heathcliff spend about every waking hr together and necessarily fall in love. Whenever Catherine and Heathcliff talk about their love, their tone is high and wild. No words could perchance show the great passion they portion, yet it becomes obvious in their ? interactions together? . At one point, Catherine stays at Thrushcross Grange for five hebdomads and comes back a different adult female and her visual aspect seems more refined and polished. She has been influenced by the Lintons, peculiarly Edgar who she has developed an infatuation with. She has changed and? seems? to look at Heathcliff in a different mode. Catherine says to him? Why how really black and cross you look! and how-how good story and grim! ? ( 52 ) . Heathcliff can? t believe his ears. He is so angry that he refuses to agitate custodies with her: ? I shall non stand to be laughed at, I shall non bear it? ( 52 ) . Heathcliff admirations subsequently if she misses him: ? Do you say she has about forgotten me? Every idea she spends on Linton, she spends a 1000 on me? ( 149 ) . The idea of Catherine loving another is unfathomable to Heathcliff, but he is convinced that she still loves him more. Here once more, even when there is non an obvious show of love, it lies merely below the surface of their interactions. Another side of the love shared between Catherine and Heathcliff is revealed in statements by Catherine to the servant Nelly Dean: ? Whatever psyches are made of, his and mine are the same # 8230 ; Nelly I am Heathcliff? ( 182 ) . Catherine loves Heathcliff so much that she feels that they portion the same psyche. Nothing can of all time interrupt this bond. Catherine herself so compares her love for Edgar and her love for Heathcliff: ? My love for Linton is like the leaf in the forests. Time will alter it # 8230 ; My love for Heathcliff resembles the ageless stones beneath-a beginning of small seeable delectation, but necessary? ( 82 ) . It is as though she realizes the superficial love she has for Edgar and the ageless love she has for Heathcliff. Catherine knows she is about to get married the incorrect adult male. What she does non recognize is that this error will finally convey about her death. While Catherine layed on her deathbed, she is visited by Heathcliff. In this last interaction, they throw accusals of treachery at each other with ardent strength. In Catherine? s craze, she realizes her error of get marrieding Edgar, but knows now there is nil she can make about it. She in on the brink of decease, and profoundly declinations bewraying her bosom: Why did you contemn me? Why did you bewray your ain bosom Cathy? I have non one word of comfort-you deserve this. You have killed yourself. Yes, you may snog me and call ; and contorting out my busss and cryings # 8230 ; you loved me-then what right had you to go forth me? I have non broken you bosom # 8230 ; and in interrupting it, you have broken mine ( 161 ) . Heathcliff is clearly angry at Catherine but he still loves her. He embraces her before he foliages, wishing that he could merely keep her forever. After Catherine dies, Heathcliff becomes really overwrought and feels that he can non survive entirely. He curses her spirit out of choler and treachery: ? May she wake in torture # 8230 ; May you non rest every bit long as I am populating # 8230 ; Oh God! It is ineffable! I can non populate without my life! I can non populate without my psyche? ( 167 ) . Heathcliff does non desire her psyche to remainder. He wishes for her to stalk him so that they can be together, at least partly, but yet everlastingly. Catherine and Heathcliff in Emily Bronte? s Wuthering Heights travel an intense and passionate route. Their intense and passionate love is apparent in their interations with each other, their interactions with others, and particularly their last interaction when Catherine is on the brink of deceasing. With the love they portion, Catherine and Heathcliff endure many adversities in their journey. Mistakes are made and repent is formed. However, they have built their love on the foundation of their psyches, which will last for an infinity. In decease they will roll together, their psyches intertwined as one. Nothing can divide them now.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
A block is anything which prevents us finding an effective solution to a problem. We all experience them, but of different types and intensities. The blocks have been grouped in various ways by different authors according to their cause, eg perceptual emotional intellectual expressive environmental cultural Its important that you are able to recognise when blocks are hindering your problem solving so that you can take action to overcome them. What causes these blocks? The labels applied to these blocks give some clues to their origins. Perceptual blocks arise from the way we have learnt to recognise information from the world around us. We develop habits of seeing the world, which sometimes can get in the way of finding the best solution to a problem, eg seeing only the most obvious solution. Emotional blocks arise when our emotional needs conflict with the situation, eg when we do not propose a radical. We will write a custom essay sample on Blocks in problem solving or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page solution to a problem because we feel it might sound ridiculous and make us look foolish. Intellectual blocks are caused by us not being able to assimilate information in the ways required to solve a problem, eg not knowing how to evaluate ideas to select the most effective solution. Expressive blocks arise when we are unable to commuÃ nicate in the way required to produce an effective solution, eg not being able to express our ideas effectively to those who have to implement the solution. . Environmental blocks are caused by. external obstacles in the social or physical environment, which prevent us from solving a problem effectively, eg distractions from the task. Cultural blocks result from our conditioning to accept what is expected or normal in a given situation, eg when the work ethic says that we must beÃ serious-minded, but finding an effective solution requires some playful fantasy. All of the blocks, except those caused by the physical environment, arise through learning or lack of it, either our own or that of people who influence us. We can overcome most of our own blocks permanently by re-learning, and overcome other peoples blocks which hinder us by learning ways to sidestep them. The following is an explanation of some of the main blocks that exist under each category heading. Perceptual blocks exist when we are unable to clearly perceive a problem or the information needed to solve it effectively . They include: Seeing only what you expect to see To recognise situations we look for patterns of key features which we have learnt by experience represent a particular situation~ If the key features fit we assume the situations are the same. This often obscures the true nature of a problem, either because we exclude relevant information (because it isnt a key feature or didnt occur in the past), or include information simply because we assume it is there. Stereotyping In recognising situations we automatically apply labels (like door, machine, laziness) which can prevent us seeing all the features of. the situation. Often we dont look beyond the obvious. For example, if someone isnt working as hard as we would like and we apply the label lazy to that person, we might overlook the possibility that boredom with monotonous work is the problem, and not laziness. Not recognising problems A surprising number of problems go unnoticed or are recognised only when the effects have become severe and emergency action is required. Not seeing the problem in perspective This is related to some of the previous blocks, and results from: taking too narrow a view of the situation, so that we recognise only part of the problem or the information required to solve it failing to recognise how different parts of the problem are related seeing only superficial aspects of the problem, so that the solution is inadequate failing to see the problem from the point of view of other people who are involved. Mistaking cause and effect Many problems are recognised by their effects or the absence of expected results. If cause and effect are confused then we are unlikely to find an effective solution. For example, if goods do not arrive and we assume that the supplier is late in despatching them when in fact our ordering department has failed to send out the order, then our search for solutions will be misdirected. In this situation the late despatch of the goods is an effect of the problem and not a cause. B. Emotional blocks Emotional blocks exist when we perceive a threat to our emotional needs. These needs differ in type and strength from person to person but include needs for achievement, recognition, order, belonging and self-esteem. The emotional blocks include: Fear of making mistakes or looking foolish This is the most significant emotional block because it affects most of us and is difficult to overcome. As a result of traditional schooling, the expected reaction when we make a mistake or suggest radically different ideas is laughter and ridicule. No one likes being laughed at and as a result we learn to fear making mistakes and to avoid suggesting ideas which are different. This block becomes more severe in the presence of colleaÃ gues of a different rank to our own. With . those who are more senior we imagine that we will be thought inexperienced or immature. With those more junior we want to protect our image as being knowledgeable and experienced. Impatience Being impatient to solve a problem may be due either to a desire to succeed quickly or to end the discomfort or loss caused by the problem. This has two major consequences. We tend to grab the first solution which comes along, without adequate analysis of the problem, and we evaluate ideas. too fast, almost instinctively rejecting unusual ideas. Either way, our solution is unlikely to be the most effective available. Avoiding anxiety This is another common block. Some of- us are more susceptible to anxiety and also find it more unpleasant than others. Many factors can cause anxiety, including high risk, disorder and ambiguity, long-term stress, and fear for our security. The effects on problem solving include avoiding risks, indecision in situations which are not black and white, excessive reliance on others judgement, and avoiding challenging the status quo. . Fear of taking risks This leads to the avoidance of situations where the outcome is uncertain or could be unpleasant. A major cause is our desire for security. The consequences include setting objectives within easy reach, so that there is no risk of failure, and accepting known solutions in preference to the unusual because their value is certain. A liking for taking risks and over-confidence in being able to avoid unpleasant , consequences are more dangerous blocks. Need for order This is related to avoiding anxiety. It can lead to an inability to cope with the frustration of situations which are not clear cut or where ambiguities exist. Lack of challenge This may arise when the problem is routine or the benefits/losses are not significant to us. The result is that either we dont tackle the problem or we take the easiest, quickest route to solution. C. Intellectual blocks Intellectual blocks exist when we dont have the necessary thinking skills to find a successful solution, or are unable to use them effectively. They include: Lack of knowledge or skill in the problem solving process This is one of the most common blocks. It includes: inadequate skills in analytical and creative thinking; an inflexible strategy, using one approach for every type of problem; the inability to use the various problem solving techniques. They can all lead to ineffective solutions. Lack of creative thinking This is always caused by an inability to use the skills rather than their absence, resulting from the dominance of analytical thinking in our day-to-day lives and a lack of practice. Inflexible thinking This is a difficulty in switching from one type of thinking skill to another, such as from analysis to idea generation or from verbal to visual thinking. Not being methodical This is perhaps the most common block. A step-by-step approach is essential to solving problems effectively. Lack of knowledge or skill in using the Language of the problem If a problem involves a language that we cannot understand or cannot use, such as specialist jargon or statistical analysis, we will not be able to tackle the problem effectively. Similarly, we may use an inappropriate language, such as trying to find an error in accounts by describing the situation verbally rather than analysing it mathematically. Using inadequate information This happens when we do not make sufficient effort to collect the relevant information, or do not understand what information is relevant, where to find it, or how it relates to the problem. Similarly, using inaccurate information can lead us to the wrong conclusions. D. Expressive blocks Expressive blocks exist when we do not have the knowledge or skills necessary to communicate or record ideas in the ways required. They are caused by an inability to use languages effectively, such as words, drawings, matheÃ matics, scientific symbols, and so on. They include: Using the wrong language Some problems are more effectively solved or communicated using one language rather than another. For example, we are unlikely to get very far if we record data only verbally when the problem requires quantitative analysis. Similarly, people may find it hard to grasp our meaning if we try to explain our feelings about a situation using mathematics instead of words. Unfamiliarity with a particular application of a language The most obvious example is the difficulty many people have making a speech, even though they can write their ideas effectively on paper. Inadequate explanations These can result from a real lack of information about what you are trying to convey, or from assuming that your audience already has some of the information when, they dont. A passive management style A situation where we are reluctant to or find it difficult to exert influence may prevent us communicating our ideas effectively. This is particularly important when people need to be convinced of the validity of ideas. A dominant management style This is when we exert oppressive control, either deliberately or unconsciously, and can make those we are communicatÃ ing with automatically reluctant to accept what we say or hostile to our ideas. E. Environmental blocks Environmental blocks, which exist when the social or physical environment hinders our problem solving, include: Management style The way in which we are managed can influence both our attitude to problem solving and the freedom we have to . create and implement ideas. For example, if our ideas are dismissed constantly with comments such as No, it wouldnt work because , or No, weve tried it before and it didnt work, we soon give up trying. Distractions Due to excessive noise and interruptions, these affect some people more than others, but in general they have a detrimental effect on problem solving. Physical discomfort This can create a distraction as well as resulting in stress.Ã or lethargy depending on the circumstances. For example, poorly designed chairs may create a distraction by giving us backache which, in turn, can make us irritable and less interested in any type of work. Lack of support This comes in many forms. For example, we may need specialist information, advice, skills or other resources, or authority to take action. A more pervasive aspect of this block is a lack of encouragement and the necessary organisational structure to support and exploit peoples ideas. Stress Stress due to pressure of work and deadlines, affects people differently. For those who are susceptible to stress it can be a powerful block, hindering creative thinking in particular. Lack of communication This has a number of effects, including inability to get the information you require and a lack of encouragement. Monotonous work This can dull enthusiasm for solving problems and put us onto automatic pilot, making us blind to problems when they occur. Expectations of others These can influence both our general perf9rmance in problem solving and the objectives we set ourselves. For example, if our peers and superiors are happy with a regular solution to a problem we may feel that its a waste of time looking for anew; more effective solution. On the other hand, if we are expected to find an innovative solution we are likely to make a greater effort. F. Cultural blocks Cultural blocks exist when our problem solving is hindrance by accepting that some things are good or right and are done, while others are bad or wrong and are not done, So that we become bound by custom. They include: Unquestioning acceptance of the status quo There is a tendency to conform to established ideas an methods of working and not to question them or express ideas which depart from them. If something is not normal done we tend to look for the reasons why it cant be done or why it wouldnt work, rather that looking for the reasons why it should be done or why it could work. Dislike of change The attitude that tradition is preferable to change can arise, from the need for security. If a situation is acceptable as it is, any change, which must involve some uncertainty, is felt to be threatening by some people. However, as we become more and more accustomed to change this block is becoming less common, but there must be reasons for change. Change for changes sake can be dangerous. Fantasy and humour are not productive There is still a widespread belief that fantasy and humour have no place in the serious business of problem solving. Subjective reports from innovators suggest otherwise. Fantasy and humour are connected by one common feature the unlikely combination of ideas (think about it next time you hear a good joke the punch line is always unexpected). Innovative solutions to problems arise in the same way by making a link between apparently unrelated ideas. Feelings, intuition and subjective judgements are unreliable There is a strong bias towards reason, logic and quantitative judgements because they can be measured and commuÃ nicated in accurate terms. Feelings, intuition and subjective judgements, which cannot be measured or communicated as effectively, are seen as unrealiable and are mistrusted. Even in mathematics, one of the most logical of sciences, intuition is often reported as playing a key role in, problem solving. A good problem solver needs to be able to use both objective, logical methods and subjective, intuitive methods in the search for solutions. Over-emphasis on competition or cooperation A strongly competitive environment (for recognition, promotion, and so on) can make people unwilling to listen to the ideas of those with whom they are competing. Similarly, in a strongly cooperative environment we may avoid expressing new ideas because we dont want to stand out from the crowd. Taboos Some actions and ideas are excluded from problem solving because they are regarded as distasteful, or are harmful, or contravene accepted moral codes. For example, in a test of creativity a group of students were given a problem to solve using calculus. They had to follow certain rules and the objective was to see who produced the largest number of different routes to the correct solution. A few students produced a lot more than the others because they chose to break the rules they were told to follow.
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Friday, February 21, 2020
Schools of Strategy - Essay Example Also this school makes chief executive officer as the main formulator of the strategy. The planning school of strategy identifies strategy making as a formal process. It calls for a mechanical and systematic process of strategy formulation with no or little creativity. The cognitive school sees strategy making as a mental process and takes input from different concepts of psychology. This school is largely conceptual in nature. The learning school stresses on learning from past experience and therefore sees strategy making as an emergent process. The power school of strategy argues that negotiating between different power holders within the organization is an important part of strategy formulation. The environmental school sees strategy making as a reactive process that is dependent on the external environment. The cultural school of strategy calls for group work in formulation of strategy. The configuration school of strategy sees strategy making as a process of transformation. The different schools of strategy can be grouped into three larger groups (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, & Lampel, 2002). First group is prescriptive in nature and consist of design, planning, and positioning school. This group tells how a strategy should ideally be made. Second group tells how the strategy is made and compromises of entrepreneurial, cognitive, learning, power, cultural, and environmental schools. The last group consists of the configuration school that is both prescriptive and descriptive in nature. Design School of Strategy The design school of strategy argues in favor of consciously controlled thought when it comes to strategy making in order to establish a fit between external opportunities and internal competence (Mintzberg, 2006).... This paper stresses that the position school also puts the job of strategy formulation in the hands of expert. Both the schools do not talk about team work and sharing of information when it comes to development of strategy. Centralized approach in strategy making was the mindset for a long time in management. Knowledge sharing was not considered vital until modern modes of communication were developed. This is why both the positioning school and design school view strategy making coming from a centralized source. Design school assumes that environment is stable and predictable, and there is no uncertainty while the positioning school accepts that market place might change due to competitors and change in demand. But both the schools focus on the economic environment. This report makes a conclusion that the design school and the positioning school are two of the schools of strategy presented in the book. The design school became popular in later part of 1950s and focuses on creative strategy formulation by the leader with the aim of creating a fit between the outside environment and the competence of the firm. The positioning school was founded by Michael Porter and it focuses on strategy formulation as an analytical process. This school argues that finding the right industry for the firm is essential and offer model for choosing an industry. Then this school suggests that firm positions itself in the industry and then chooses a strategy relative to the position of the firm.